• Tall Grass Prairies have proven to fixate about 235 Mg C/Ha, which is 235 Mg Carbon per hectare.
  • 80% of Short Grass prairies have been converted into crop land in the United States.
  • At the peak of existence prairies once held about 1,500 different species of grasses, shrubs, and wildflowers that stored vast amounts of Carbon in the soils they inhabited.

Davidson, John H. . (2010). North america's great carbon ocean .

Upland Forest
  • Soils of Upland forest are some of the most biodiverse soils known. Containing millions of bacteria, fungi, and other living creature.
  • Forests provide many essential services such as climate moderation and carbon sequestration.
  • Upland deciduous hardwood forest habitat occurs on upland sites with soils that retain water and in settings where wildfires are infrequent.
Forest-upland deciduous. (n.d.). Tomorrow’s Habitat for the Wild and Rare: An Action Plan for Minnesota Wildlife, Retrieved from
Illinois forest types upland forests. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Upland forests. (n.d.). Habitat Fact Sheet, Retrieved from

Lowland Forest
  • Spicebush is a common species that is found in this ecoregion and provides a good food source for many species that inhabit the lowland forest type.
  • Typically ferns are common to this forest type because of the suitable soils that they provide.
  • Ephemeral ponds and wetlands are a typical find within this forest type.
Chaplin, s. (n.d.). Western great lakes forest . Retrieved from
Mammals of the Indiana Dunes. (2011, August 2). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14:29, August 7, 2011, from

Marshes of Northern IN
  • The Migratory bird treaty act of 1918 stems in part to no laws around hunting in the marsh lands of Northern Indiana.
  • It is hard to find today, but Marsh prairies used to support growth of wild rice, that feed large populations of wild geese.
  • The vast marsh land that used to be located in Northern Indiana once captivated some of the most renounced French explorers to come and explore, map, and trade along the marsh land.
Meyer, Alfred. (n.d.). The kankakee "marsh" of northern indiana and illinois. Retrieved from

  • A swamp is a wetland with some flooding of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water
  • The two main types of swamp are "true" or swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps.
  • Swamps are characterized by very slow-moving waters. They are usually associated with adjacent rivers or lakes.

Swamp. (2011, August 6). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20:22, August 15, 2011, from

  • Meadows have been in decline sense the progression of farming shortly after WWII
  • Meadows often act as sponges, soaking up mass amounts of water
  • Unlike a swamp or marsh there is typically no standing water associated with Meadows.
Meadows habitat losses. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Wet meadow. (2011, June 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20:37, August 21, 2011, from


There are 4 different classifications for bogs: Valley bog, Raised bog ,Blanket bog, and Quaking bog.Raised bogs are often the most common in this area found near and around lakes and other bodies of water.
Carnivorous plants are found more ofter in bogs.
Bog. (2011, August 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:02, August 25, 2011, from